Coverage of our Studies...
Overview of Diabetes
Diabetes is a syndrome associated with excess blood sugar due to
either low levels of insulin production by the pancreas or insulin resistance.
Diabetes can lead to a variety of illnesses including heart disease, stroke,
kidney failure, blindness, limb amputations and birth defects. It is estimated
that around 250 million people in the world are living with diabetes today and
this number will increase to around 380 million by 2025 (WHO
prediction). The US alone has 20.8 million people suffering from diabetes (LeadDiscovery,
2009) while the UK hosts about 2.5 million sufferers (Diabetes
UK). Diabetes has also become a major cause of premature illness and death
in many countries, mainly through the increased risk of cardiovascular diseases.
According to WHO estimates, over 1.1 million people around the world die
annually directly from diabetes. The number of people whose death was recorded
as heart disease or kidney failure where diabetes was a contributory factor is,
however, considerably higher. Accordingly, diabetes related causes account for
over 3.8 million deaths; equivalent to one death every ten seconds and claiming
the lives of as many people as HIV/AIDS (Espicom
According to Diabetes UK reports,
the incidence of Type-1 diabetes (lack of insulin) in children is rising at a
rate of three to four percent a year. The increase in Type-2 diabetes (insulin
resistance) which has been closely linked to an aging population is also rapidly
rising together with the numbers of obese or overweight people. Type-2 diabetes,
traditionally a condition associated with older age groups, is now also
appearing in children and adolescents.
The economic impact
and market share of antidiabetic drugs
It is estimated that the global diabetes therapy market is at
around US$26.3 billion in 2009 and is expected to grow to around US$34.5 billion
by 2013 (Espicom 2009). Market analysis by
various interested groups indicates that oral antidiabetic drugs account for
around 39% of the total market value. Metformin is the recommended first-line
therapy for Type-2 diabetes and accounts for around 11-12% of the total market
value. Other oral agents include sulphonylureas, thiazolidinediones (TZDs or
glitazones), glinides and α-glucosidase inhibitors. Many of these are reported
to be widely available generically and the sales of leading proprietary oral
agents are now over US$7 billion. There are also quite few current trials and
developments in insulin formulations, injectable glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)
agonists, oral dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, etc, but the
hope still is on the discovery of novel antidiabetic drugs.
With widely accepted prediction of an already large
market for diabetes medications to show continuous growth, the potential of drug
discovery researches in this area is enormous.
Our Research Strategy
Being aware of the impact of scientific research in this field,
we introduced several bioassay systems by the beginning of 2009. Our strategy is
to study medicinal plant with claimed traditional uses for the management
of diabetes. When activity is detected, we undertake a comprehensive
bioassay-guided isolation study to identify the active principles. the following
are among the relevant bioassay screens of interest:
of the catalytic activity of α-glucosidase leads to the retardation of glucose
absorption from the gut leading to decreased level of postprandial blood
glucose. We are targeting this enzyme by natural products to identify
chemotherapeutic agents for diabetes and as well as obesity:
The common feature of hyperglycaemia is
glycation reaction resulting in the formation of various products which are
commonly associated with diabetes, aging and neurodegenerative diseases: We use
an in vitro model of protein glycation measurements.
Compounds that enhance insulin-dependent
increase in glucose uptake in adiposities and myoblasts are regarded as
antidiabetic agents: glucose transport in cultured cells is a relevant
method of sugar uptake study.
In In this example, the antidiabetic potential of plant
anthocyanins is scrutinised. This highly coloured products commonly found in our
food have shown potential antidiabetic effect through multiple mechanism.
Click on the image to freely access the full article. According to the journal
or PDF), this article was th
top featured paper of the year 2017.
We have also shown the therapeutic potential of compounds that we
take for granted. Small compounds such as monoterpenes appear to punch a lot
more than their weight! Click on the image to access the free article. See also
exemplary articles below.
Read our articles in
HABTEMARIAM, S. (2018).
Antidiabetic potential of
monoterpenes: A case of small
molecules punching above their
International Journal of
Marya, Khan, H.,, Nabavi, S.M.
S. (2018). Anti-diabetic
potential of peptides: Future
prospects as therapeutic agents.
Life Sciences 193,
Belwal, T., Nabavi, S.F., Nabavi, S.M.,
HABTEMARIAM, S.* (2017).
Dietary anthocyanins and insulin
resistance: When food becomes a
Varghese, G.K, Abraham, R.,
Chandran, N.N, HABTEMARIAM, S.
of lead molecules in Garcinia mangostana L.
against pancreatic cholesterol
esterase activity: An in silico
Science: Computational Life Sciences.
HABTEMARIAM, S. (2017). Could we really
use Aloe vera food supplements
to treat diabetes?
Journal of Diabetes and Clinical
Going back to the
good old days: The merit of crude plant
drug mixtures in the 21st
International Journal of Complementary &
S.*, Varghese, G.K. (2017).
and pancreatic beta-cell
protective effects of methanolic
seeds. Asian Pacific Journal
of Tropical Biomedicine
HABTEMARIAM, S. (2016). The
to change the lives of millions
in Ethiopia and far beyond.
Asian Pacific Journal of
Tsala, D.E., Lannang, A.M., Dimo,
T., HABTEMARIAM, S., Ekanga,
J.A., Guemmogne, B.M., Sewald, N.
and wound healing effects of
Advances in Biology and Medicine
A., Abdollahi, M., Thiagarajan,
R., Nabavi, S.F., HABTEMARIAM,
S., Daglia, M., Badiee, A.,
Nabavi, S.M. (2016).
Lutein and Cataract: from bench
Reviews in Biotechnology
HABTEMARIAM, S., Varghese,
Extractability of Rutin in
Herbal Tea Preparations of
Free Full Text Access
HABTEMARIAM, S.* and Lentini, G.
(2015). The therapeutic
potential of rutin for diabetes:
Review in Medicinal Chemistry
Investigation into the
Identification of the active
Nabavi, S.F., HABTEMARIAM, S.,
Daglia, M., Shafighi, M.,
Barber, A.J., Nabavi, S.M. (2015).
Anthocyanins as a potential
therapy for diabetic
Current Medicinal Chemistry
HABTEMARIAM, S. and
G.K. (2014). The antidiabetic
therapeutic potential of dietary
L.V., HABTEMARIASM, S*. (2013).
Antidiabetic components of
leaves: Identification through
HABTEMARIAM, S. (2013).
Antihyperlipidemic components of
aerial parts: Identification
HABTEMARIAM S. (2012). The
anti-obesity potential of
M., Lentini, G. and
HABTEMARIAM, S*. (2012).
Phytochemical, antioxidant and
activity evaluations of
HABTEMARIAM, S. (2011).
Targeting intestinal digestive
enzymes by natural products:
synergistic effects of
HABTEMARIAM, S. (2011).
inhibitory activity of
Natural Product Communications
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Coverage of our Studies
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By using our bioassay-phytochemistry studies, we have identified several hit extracts - we would like to hear from
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